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knowledge    音标拼音: [n'ɑlədʒ] [n'ɑlɪdʒ]
n. U知识,学识,学问;知道,了解消息




n 1: the psychological result of perception and learning and
reasoning [synonym: {cognition}, {knowledge}, {noesis}]

Knowledge \Knowl"edge\, n. [OE. knowlage, knowlege, knowleche,
knawleche. The last part is the Icel. suffix -leikr, forming
abstract nouns, orig. the same as Icel. leikr game, play,
sport, akin to AS. l[=a]c, Goth. laiks dance. See {Know}, and
cf. {Lake}, v. i., {Lark} a frolic.]
[1913 Webster]
1. The act or state of knowing; clear perception of fact,
truth, or duty; certain apprehension; familiar cognizance;
[1913 Webster]

Knowledge, which is the highest degree of the
speculative faculties, consists in the perception of
the truth of affirmative or negative propositions.
[1913 Webster]

2. That which is or may be known; the object of an act of
knowing; a cognition; -- chiefly used in the plural.
[1913 Webster]

There is a great difference in the delivery of the
mathematics, which are the most abstracted of
knowledges. --Bacon.
[1913 Webster]

Knowledges is a term in frequent use by Bacon, and,
though now obsolete, should be revived, as without
it we are compelled to borrow "cognitions" to
express its import. --Sir W.
[1913 Webster]

To use a word of Bacon's, now unfortunately
obsolete, we must determine the relative value of
knowledges. --H. Spencer.
[1913 Webster]

3. That which is gained and preserved by knowing;
instruction; acquaintance; enlightenment; learning;
scholarship; erudition.
[1913 Webster]

Knowledge puffeth up, but charity edifieth. --1 Cor.
viii. 1.
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Ignorance is the curse of God;
Knowledge, the wing wherewith we fly to heaven.
[1913 Webster]

4. That familiarity which is gained by actual experience;
practical skill; as, a knowledge of life.
[1913 Webster]

Shipmen that had knowledge of the sea. --1 Kings ix.
[1913 Webster]

5. Scope of information; cognizance; notice; as, it has not
come to my knowledge.
[1913 Webster]

Why have I found grace in thine eyes, that thou
shouldst take knowledge of me? --Ruth ii. 10.
[1913 Webster]

6. Sexual intercourse; -- usually preceded by carnal; same as
{carnal knowledge}.

Syn: See {Wisdom}.
[1913 Webster]

Knowledge \Knowl"edge\, v. t.
To acknowledge. [Obs.] "Sinners which knowledge their sins."
[1913 Webster]

112 Moby Thesaurus words for "knowledge":
IQ, account, acquaintance, adeptness, advice, announcement,
appreciation, apprehension, awareness, blue book, briefing,
broadening the mind, bulletin, caliber, capacity, cognition,
communication, communique, comprehension, conception,
consciousness, data, datum, deductive power, directory,
discernment, dispatch, education, enlightenment, erudition,
esemplastic power, evidence, experience, expertise, facts,
factual information, familiarity, familiarization, gen,
general information, grasp, guidebook, handout, hard information,
ideation, incidental information, info, information, insight,
instruction, integrative power, intellect,
intellectual acquirement, intellectual grasp, intellectual power,
intellectualism, intellectuality, intelligence,
intelligence quotient, knowing, learning, light, lore,
mastery of skills, memorization, mental age, mental capacity,
mental cultivation, mental culture, mental grasp, mental ratio,
mentality, mention, message, mother wit, native wit, news, notice,
notification, power of mind, presentation, proficiency,
promotional material, proof, publication, publicity, rationality,
reasoning power, release, report, sanity, scholarship, schooling,
science, scope of mind, self-instruction, sense, sidelight,
statement, storing the mind, the dope, the goods, the know,
the scoop, thinking power, transmission, understanding, white book,
white paper, wisdom, wit, word

The objects,
concepts and relationships that are assumed to exist in some
area of interest. A collection of {knowledge}, represented
using some {knowledge representation} language is known as a
{knowledge base} and a program for extending and/or querying a
knowledge base is a {knowledge-based system}.

Knowledge differs from {data} or {information} in that new
knowledge may be created from existing knowledge using logical
{inference}. If information is data plus meaning then
knowledge is information plus processing.

A common form of knowledge, e.g. in a {Prolog} program, is a
collection of {facts} and {rules} about some subject.

For example, a {knowledge base} about a family might contain
the facts that John is David's son and Tom is John's son and
the rule that the son of someone's son is their grandson.
From this knowledge it could infer the new fact that Tom is
David's grandson.

See also {Knowledge Level}.





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